The thirty seven requisites of enlightenment or bodhipakkhiya dhamma in the Pali language and bodhipaksa dharma in the Sanskrit language. being one of the connotations of bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, as given in Chapter I. the thirty-seven Bodhipakkhiya-dhammas, the requisites of enlightenment. bodhipakkhiya-dhammā. The 37 ‘things pertaining to enlightenment’, or ‘ requisites of enlightenment’ comprise the entire doctrines of the Buddha. They are.

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Thirty-Seven Requisites of Enlightenment: Bodhipakkhiya dhamma in Theravada Buddhism – drarisworld

Mindfulness, the first factor of enlightenment, means non-judgemental awareness from moment to moment and is also the 7 th factor of the Noble Eightfold Path. It has three aspects—the intention of renunciation, intention of bodhipakkuiya will and intention of harmlessness—that are in opposition to the wrong intentions of greed, ill will and harmfulness. Mindfulness is attained by contemplating on the body just as the body, feelings just as feelings, mind just as the mind and mind objects just as mind objects.

This page was last edited on 30 Novemberat In addition, Buddhaghosa factors the 37 qualities in a manner so as to describe fourteen non-redundant qualities Vism. Archived from the original on The development of the seventh factor upekkha of equanimity or perfect neutrality is facilitated by the preceding six factors and is the mental quality of being non-reactive and neutral with bodhi;akkhiya perfectly balanced mind in the face of experiences such as pleasure and pain.

None of these three discourses themselves explicitly identifies which seven factors or sets of factors are being referenced.

Cittanupassana Contemplation of the mind just as mind and just as bofhipakkhiya phenomenon with no sense of rhamma, I or myself is to be done by observing the following: The sixth factor of concentration, which is calm one-pointedness of the mind focussed on a particular internal or external object, follows the factor of tranquillity while the other factors of faith, investigation, effort and joy are also conducive to the development of concentration.


Examples of this are as follows: Someone with well-developed equanimity, such as an Arahatwill not react to worldly experiences such as gain and loss, fame and ill repute, praise and blame or pleasure and pain.

A mind with greed or bodhipakkhita greed; A mind with anger or without anger; A mind with delusion or without delusion; A lazy mind; A distracted mind; A developed or undeveloped mind; An inferior or superior mind; A concentrated or un-concentrated mind; and A mind free from defilements or not free from defilements.

Through investigation, one gains an analytical knowledge of their true nature consisting of the three universal characteristics of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and absence of a self.

Close consideration of the series would show that the seven sets are ranked in a numerically ascending order, from four to eight, which means that their arrangement is purely pedagogic and implies nothing about a later set being more advanced than the earlier sets Bodhipakkhiya dhamma in Theravada Buddhism.

Note that, whereas the Visuddhimagga orders the five redundant qualities listed in the table in order of ascending frequency among the seven sets that is, from faith which appears twice among the seven sets to energy which appears nine timesthe table below orders them in a manner consistent with the Five Faculties and Five Powers from faith to understanding to facilitate reader comprehension as there is potentially a developmental facet to this classical ordering.


The third factor of determined effort, energy, exertion, vigour or diligence is essential throughout the enlightenment process from beginning to end. By careful attention SN There are three levels of concentration that one is able to attain in concentration meditation: Supramundane right view is the correct understanding of the Four Noble Truths of suffering dukkhathe cause of suffering samudayacessation of suffering nirodha and the path leading to the cessation of suffering magga.

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Conversely, in their translations of the Itivuttaka discourses, Ireland and Thanissaro interpret the “seven” as referring to the “seven groups of” or “seven [sets of]” factors of enlightenment, respectively.

The fifth factor passaddhi of calm, serenity, quietness or tranquillity naturally follows joy or rapture and leads on to concentration. The Noble Eightfold Path: It has four aspects: By giving attention to the appropriate basis SN Striving by restraint Striving by abandonment Striving by development Striving by protection. By good friendship SN However, on the path of liberation they help to develop wholesome mental states and the supramundane knowledge pertaining to the eradication of mental defilements in order to attain Nibbana or final liberation.

As can be seen, the five spiritual faculties and the five spiritual powers are very similar in number and terminology. They are as follows: The 37 requisites of enlightenment are described in the following seven groups:. The unwholesome mental states that have not arisen yet refer to the five mental hindrances, or pancha nivarana, of sense desire kamacchanda ; ill will vyapada ; sloth and torpor thina middha ; restlessness and remorse uddaccha kukkuccha ; and sceptical doubt vicikicca.

The Buddha’s elaboration of the last item included the seven sets of thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya dhammas which are enumerated individually in this discourse.

From the Mahāparinibbāna sutta (DN 16):

Examples of this are as follows:. Through wisdom, one realises the suffering, cause of suffering, cessation of suffering and the path leading to the cessation of suffering.

Table 1 below identifies the five qualities spanning multiple bodhipakkhiya-dhamma sets. There are three stages of effort required bodhipakkhya accomplish a particular task from beginning to completion: