Gymnospermae terdiri dari beberapa divisi baik yang sudah punah maupun yang masih ada sampai sekarang, yaitu mencakup 3 divisi yang. Gymnospermae memiliki ciri-ciri sebagai berikut: 1. Bakal biji tidak terlindungi oleh daun buah. 2. Pada umumnya perdu atau pohon, tidak ada. View soal from TM at SMA Rizvi Textile Institute. Soal- Soal Spermatophyta 1. Berikut ini adalah ciri-ciri dari tumbuhan Gymnospermae, .

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In a related species, G. Cycad remains, especially leaves, are abundant in Mesozoic rocks. Evolution of seed plants and plant communities environment forest In forestry: A megastrobilus contains many scales, called megasporophylls, that contain megasporangia. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. At least some species are known to have been heterosporous. The division Ginkgophytarepresented adqlah by only one living species, Ginkgo bilobawas much more widespread in past ages.

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In cycads and Ginkgo the cotyledons remain within the seed and serve to digest the food in the female gametophyte and absorb it into the developing embryo. Those modified leaves, or megasporophylls, are clustered at the apex of the plant but not arranged in a cone. They dominated the landscape about million…. Ephedraceae, Gnetaceae, and Welwitschiaceae. With the exception of cycads, gymnosperms have simple leaves, and none….

Some of the earliest conifers class Cordaitopsida were trees with long strap-shaped leaves. Conifer leaves are always simple and often small and scalelike e. The ovule-bearing portion was situated toward the upper surface away from the bract. The earliest recognized group of gymnospermous seed plants are members of the extinct division Pteridospermophytaknown as pteridosperms or seed ferns.

Gymnosperms were dominant in the Mesozoic Era about Many cycad species host cyanobacteria also known as blue-green algae in nodules in the roots and may form coralline masses on the ground surface known as coralloid roots.

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Typically, seeds were borne on the surface of a fleshy receptacle. The ovules of Genomosperma kidstonii, for example, consisted of an elongated megasporangium with one functional megaspore and featured eight elongated fingerlike processes that loosely surrounded the megasporangium. Ygmnospermae General features Major divisions Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Evolution and paleobotany Earliest gymnosperms Appearance of gymnosperm divisions Annotated classification.

Secondly, sporangia of seedless plants typically lack an integumentwhich forms the seed coat in gymnosperms. Pteridosperm seeds were very similar to those of cycads and were often large, with a soft outer seed coat and a harder inner seed coat.

A hardy deciduous treeGinkgo resembles an angiosperm in that the woody stem is frequently and irregularly branched and bears broad leaves, which are fan-shaped with dichotomously branched veins. Reproductive axes were generally similar to those of the Cordaitalesbut they were more compact, with adalag bracts on the ovule-bearing axes obscuring the axillary fertile buds.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. Ginkgo has two kinds of branches: In most conifers the pollen-bearing and ovule-bearing avalah the microsporangia and megasporangia, respectively are borne on the same plant.

The wood of gymnosperms is often called softwood to differentiate it from the hardwood angiosperms. The wood is simpler than that of angiosperms; it consists primarily of elongated tracheids water- and mineral-conducting cells in the xylem and vascular rays in the phloem that store materials and provide for wdalah conduction.

Conifer forestsfor example, cover vast regions of northern temperate lands, and gymnosperms frequently grow in more northerly latitudes than do angiosperms.

Scottish botanist Robert Brown first distinguished gymnosperms from angiosperms in If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login.

By the late Paleozoic there came into existence another group of extinct conifers, the Voltziales division Pinophyta.

Help us improve this article! On some of the topmost scales were borne elongated microsporangia. Animal, kingdom Animaliaany of a group of multicellular eukaryotic organisms i.



During the course of the evolution of the seed aalah, a number of morphological modifications were necessary. Cycads are dioecious, meaning an individual only produces male or female cones. The extinct division Progymnospermophyta is thought to be ancestral to seed plants. In the genus Cycasovules are borne among the edges of the stalk of a reduced leaf with a bladelike region still present. Pollen organs were quite similar among the forms in the sense that all had a whorl of modified microsporophylls on which were borne compound microsporangia.

Taxonomists recognize four distinct divisions of extant nonextinct gymnospermous plants— ConiferophytaCycadophytaGinkgophytaand Gnetophyta —with 88 genera and more than 1, species distributed throughout the world. The cone-bearing gymnosperms are among the largest and oldest living organisms in the world. Ghmnospermae ovulate cones, called megastrobilimay be borne on the same plant that bears microstrobili as in conifers or on separate plants as in cycads and Ginkgo.

In gymnosperms such as cycads and Ginkgothe seed coat is known as the sarcotesta and consists of two layers. All other genera of cycads, gynospermae, have megastrobili, with the megasporophylls reduced and not leaflike in appearance. Gymnosperm s the nonflowering gymnosperrmae plants are only woody plants with a few woody twining vines.

The oldest known pine Pinus mundayi dates to about million years ago; the species was ygmnospermae from charred fossil remains in At this stage the ovule is ready to be fertilized.

The fertilized egg undergoes mitosis to begin the development of a new sporophyte generation—the multicellular embryo of the seed. Microsporangiaor pollen sacs, are borne on the lower surfaces of the microsporophylls.