Keralacharithram analyses the history of Kerala in a appropriate way and present it in a simple language. This historic book is authored by A Sreedhara Menon. കേരളചരിത്രം (ഒന്നാംഭാഗം),ചരിത്രം-കേരളം. Megalithic culture · Maritime contacts · Sangam period · Tamilakam · Cheras · Ays · Ezhil Malai The history of Kerala, India, dates back many millennia.
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The history of KeralaIndiadates back many millennia. Stone Age carvings in the Edakkal Caves feature pictorial writings believed to date to at least the Neolithic era around 5, BC, indicating the presence of a prehistoric civilisation or settlement in this region.
Kerala charithram marxist veekshanathil | Chintha Publishers
Keralam, the then Chera nadu had direct contact across the Arabian Sea with all the major Mediterranean and Red Sea ports as well those of the Far East. The krrala trade between Kerala and much of the world was one of the main drivers of the world economy.
For much of history, ports in Kerala were the busiest Muziris among all trade and travel routes in the history of the world. In the 8th century, Adi Shankara was born at Kalady in central Kerala. He travelled extensively across the Indian subcontinent establishing institutions of Advaita Vedanta philosophy.
Contact with Europeans after the arrival of Vasco Da Gama in gave rise to struggles between colonial and native interests. The state of Keralam was created in from the former state of Travancore-Cochinthe Malabar district of Madras Stateand the Kasaragod taluk of Kearla Kannada.
Many historians locate port cities Ophir and Tarshish mentioned in old testament in ancient Kerala. Poovar near Thiruvananthapuram is believed to be Ophir mentioned in old testament bible.
Similarly Kollam kfrala, another ancient port city, is believed to be Tarshish. Many of the legends from native people in Kerala are common with the rest of India coming from the Puranas. Perhaps the most famous festival of Kerala, Onamis deeply rooted in Kerala traditions. Onam is associated with the legendary king Mahabaliwho according to the Hindu Puranasruled the Earth and several other planetary systems from Kerala. His entire kingdom was then a land of immense prosperity and happiness.
However, he was granted rule over one of the netherworld Patala planets called Sutala, by Vamanathe fifth Avatar earthly incarnation of Lord Vishnu. The oldest of all the Puranas, the Matsya Puranasets the story of the Matsya Avatar fish incarnation of Lord Vishnuin the Western ghat Mountains of old Tamilnadu, which lie in between Chera Nadu and chola and pandiyanadu.
There are legends dealing with the origins of Kerala geographically and culturally. One such legend is the retrieval of Kerala from the sea, by Parasurama, a warrior sage. It proclaims that Parasuramaan Avatar of Mahavishnuthrew his battle axe into the sea. As keala result, the land of Kerala arose, and thus was reclaimed from the waters.
He was the sixth of the ten avatars incarnations of Vishnu. From Gokarnam he reached Kanyakumari and threw his axe northward across the ocean. The place where the axe landed was Kerala.
It was katam an old measure of land lying between Gokarnam and Kanyakumari. Puranas say that it was Parasurama who planted the Brahmins and Nayakas in 64 regions of Kerapa from Chera and Pandya regions. According to the puranas, Kerala is also known as Parasurama Kshetram, i.
Archaeological studies have identified many MesolithicNeolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala. The studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning charithrsm the Paleolithic age, and its continuity through Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic ages.
Archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area. They kearla locally known as “muniyara”, derived from muni hermit or sage and ara dolmen. Kerala was a major spice exporter as early as BCE, according to Sumerian kegala. Arabs and Phoenicians were also successful in establishing their prominence in the Kerala trade during this early cjarithram. In the last centuries BCE the coast charithgam important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper.
In foreign-trade circles the region was known as Male or Malabar. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana ; the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus. They intermarried with local people, resulting in formation of the Muslim Mappila community. In the chariyhram century, some Christians also migrated from Persia and joined the early Syrian Christian community who chraithram to trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century although no evidence has been established to this claim.
Another Christian migration from middle east to Kerala was of the Knanaya community. Mappila was an honorific title Mapillai is a Tamil word for bridegroom, because foreign male partner married to local woman, they have been called Mapillai community that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; Jewish, Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration account for later names of the respective communities: According to him, Muziris could be reached in 40 days’ time from the Red sea ports in Egyptian coast purely depending on the South West Monsoon winds.
Later, the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea notes that “both Muziris and Nelcynda are now busy places”. Collections of poems by Sangam poets like ParanarKapilarGautamanar, Mamulanarand Avvaiyar give us information about the Chera kings like UthiyanNeduncheralathan and Senguttuvan.
The Land of Keralaputra was one of the five independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka’s time, the others being CholaPandyaTamiraparani and Satiyaputra.
The Cheras ruled western Malabar Coast chaithram, the Cholas ruled in the eastern Coromandel Coast and the Pandyas in the south-central peninsula. There were also numerous small vassal kingdoms and city-states called ” Vels “. The Chera chariyhram consisted of a major kerqla of modern Kerala and Kongunadu which comprises of districts of modern Tamil Nadu like Coimbatore and Salem.
There were harbours of Naura near Kannur, Tyndis near Koyilandy, and Bacare near Alappuzha which were also trading with Rome and Palakkad pass churam facilitated migration and trade. The contact with Romans might have given rise to small colonies of Jews and Syrian Christians in the chief harbour towns of Kerala. The Cochin Jews believe that their ancestors came to the west coast of India as refugees following the destruction of Jerusalem in the first century AD.
Saint Thomas Christians claim to be the descendants of the converts of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Jesus Christ although no evidence that ‘Saint’ Thomas ever visited Kerala has been established.
Buddhism and Jainism reached Kerala in this early period. As in other parts of Ancient IndiaBuddhism and Jainism co-existed with early Hindu beliefs during the first five centuries.
The combined number of Jews, Christians, and Muslims was relatively small at this early stage. They co-existed harmoniously with each other and with local Hindu society, aided by the commercial benefit from such association.
A silent revolution was taking place in the social system of the western coast of south India during the last phase of Sangam Age. Towards the end of Sangam age, Brahmins migrated into this region and by about the 8th century, a chain of Brahmin settlements had come up a large number of which were in Central Kerala.
Temples were constructed, Nambudiri community was evolved. Adi Shankara the exponent of Advaita monistic philosophy lived in the 8th century AD.
The whole of Kerala came to be covered by a network of Hindu temple centered Brahmin settlements. Under their control, these settlements had a large extend of land, number of tenants and the entailing privileges. With more advanced techniques of cultivation, sociopolitical organisation and a strong sense of solidarity, They succeeded in raising a feudal fighting class and ordered the caste system with numerous graduations of upper, intermediate and lower classes.
Much of history of the region from the 6th to the 8th century is obscure. During the early part of Kulasekara periodthe southern region from Nagercoil to Thiruvananthapuram was ruled by Ay kingswho lost their power in 10th century and thus the region became a part of the Kulasekara empire.
The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. Buddhism and Jainism disappeared from the land.
The social system became fractured with internal divisions on the lines of caste. He is reputed to have founded four mathas “monasteries”which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta of which he is known as the greatest revivalist. His works in Sanskrit concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of advaita chaeithram.
He charuthram established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the Upanishads and Brahma Charlthram, in a chrithram when the Mimamsa school established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism. Shankara represented his works as elaborating on ideas found in the Upanishadsand he wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic canon Brahma Sutraprincipal upanishads and Bhagavad Gita in support of his thesis.
The main opponent in his work is the Mimamsa school of thought, though he also offers arguments against the views of some other schools like Samkhya and certain schools of Buddhism. Venad was a kingdom in the south west tip of Kerala, which acted as a buffer between Cheras and Pandyas.
Until the end of the 11th century, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom. The Ays were the earliest ruling dynasty in southern Kerala, who, at their zenith, ruled over a region from Nagercoil in chafithram south to Thiruvananthapuram in the north. Their capital was at Kollam. A series of attacks by the Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline kefala Ays although the dynasty remained powerful until the beginning of the 10th century.
However, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuramfell in the subsequent attack, which keralx the Chera king, Rama varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam.
The end of Second Chera dynasty in the 12th century marks the independence of the Venad. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty: Thrippappur and Chirava, merged into the Venad family and established the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. Historical records regarding the origin of the Samoothiri of Kozhikode is obscure. However, its generally agreed that the ,erala were originally the rulers of Eralnadu region of the Later Chera Kingdom and were known as the Eradis.
Eralnadu province was situated in the northern parts of present-day Malappuram district and was landlocked by the Valluvanad and Polanadu in the west.
Legends such as The Origin of Kerala tell the charitrham of a local ruling family at Nediyiruppunear present-day Kondotty by two young brothers belonging to the Eradi clan. The brothers, Manikkan and Vikraman were the most trusted generals in the army of dharithram Cheras.
Narayanana Kerala-based historian, in his book, Calicut: The City of Truth states that the Eradi was a favourite of the last Later Chera king and granted him, as a mark of favor, a small tract of land on the sea-coast in addition to his hereditary possessions Eralnadu province. Samoothiri allied with Muslim Arab and Chinese merchants and used most of the wealth from Kozhikode to develop his military power.
They became the most powerful king in the Malayalam speaking regions charitheam the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Kozhikode conquered large parts of central Kerala, which was under the control of the king of Kingdom of Kochi.
He was forced to shift his capital c. AD further south. In the 15th century, Kochi was reduced in to a vassal state of Kozhikode. After Vasco Da Gama ‘s arrival in Kappad Kozhikode inthe Portuguese began to ksrala eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular. The Samoothiri Maharaja of Kozhikode permitted the Portuguese to trade with his subjects. Their trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and fort in his territory.
However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Samoothiri kerqla finally led to conflict.